Coral Reef Review _quiz.htm _quiz.htm Why are coral reefs.

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Coral Reef Review _quiz.htm _quiz.htm Why are coral reefs so important? Can coral reef fisheries be sustainable? What are some things we can do to save coral reefs?

Coral Reef Review What type of coral reef is this? Barrier Reef

Coral Reef Review What type of coral reef is this? Atoll

Coral Reef Review What type of coral reef is this? Fringing Reef


Bony Fish 90% of all fish are bony fish, which are fish that have a skeleton made of bone. Bony fish include swordfish, tuna, flounder and salmon.

External Anatomy

Internal Anatomy

Two Main Types of Fins 1. Paired (one on each side of the body) –pectoral fins and pelvic fins help with steering and maneuvering 2. Unpaired (or median) –dorsal and anal fins give the fish stability, like the keel of a sailboat –caudal fin, usually called the tail, provides the power for moving forward

Lateral Line System A fluid-filled tube that runs along each side of the body, under the skin. One of the fish’s primary sense organs; detects underwater vibrations and is capable of determining the direction of their source.

Scales almost transparent, letting deep silvery layers of skin show through aids in camouflage

Operculum A protective flap of bone and skin that covers the gills of a fish. Why is this important for fish to have?

How Do Fish Swim? The density of water makes it very difficult to move in, but fish can move very smoothly and quickly. A swimming fish is relying on its skeleton for framework, its muscles for power, and its fins for thrust and direction.

How Do Fish Swim? The muscles provide the power for swimming and constitute up to 80% of the fish itself. The muscles are arranged in multiple directions that allow the fish to move in any direction. A sinusoidal wave passes down from the head to the tail. The fins provide a platform to exert the thrust from the muscles onto the water.

How Do Fish Swim? Thrust- force in animal’s direction Lift- force opposite in right angles to the thrust Drag- force opposite the direction of movement *All lift forces cancel out over one complete tail stroke. Drag is minimized by the streamlined shape of the fish and a special slime fishes excrete from their skin that minimizes frictional drag and maintains smooth flow of water past the fish.

Fins Fins give a fish control over its movements by directing thrust, supplying lift and even acting as brakes. A fish must control its pitch, yaw, and roll. Caudal Fin – provides thrust, and control the fishes direction Pectorals – act mostly as rudders and hydroplanes to control yaw and pitch. Also act as very important brakes by causing drag. Pelvic Fins – mostly controls pitch Dorsal/Anal Fins – control roll

Caudal Fins

Variations in Body Form A tuna fish, which has a fusiform similar to a torpedo can cruise through the water at very high speeds.

Variations in Body Form The attenuated shape of the eel allows it to wiggle into small crevices where it hunts prey.

Variations in Body Form The depressed shape of the angler fish is advantageous for its “sit and wait” strategy of hunting.

Variations in Body Form The compressed shape found on many reef fishes such as the butter fish gives the fish great agility for movement around the reef and can support sudden bursts of acceleration.

Buoyancy and Flotation Buoyancy – the ability of an object to float due to the support of the fluid the body is in

Adaptations to help marine organisms stay afloat: Portuguese man-of-war and the by-the wind sailors are able to secrete gases into a float which enables them to stay afloat. Nautilus’ continually add chambers to its shell and moves to the last chamber as it grows. It pushes water out and secretes a gas which keeps it buoyant.

Other Adaptations to Help Marine Organisms Stay Afloat: Gas-filled swim bladders. Some fish gulp air at the surface. Other fish release gas from their blood. Fish who don’t have swim bladders are active, continuously swimming fish – some tuna, sharks and bottom fish. Whales and seals decrease their density and increase their flotation by storing large quantities of blubber, which is mainly low density fat.

Salinity and Its Effects Salinity Differences -some species may be limited to living only in certain places because of differences in salinity Deep Water – little salinity change, – fish will be spread over a large area Coastal Areas – a lot of salinity change near bays and estuaries – these waters are barriers to most surface dwelling fish

Temperature Regulation Some fish, although cold-blooded, are able to conserve heat. They can swim rapidly and cruise long distances in the coldest of waters. Ex: white sharks and mackerel

FUN FISH FACTS Fish sleep with their eyes open! A baby fish is called a “fry.” Fish feel pain and suffer stress just like mammals and birds. Tropical fish are one of the most popular pets in the U.S.

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